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switchgrass yield per acre

Another use is as a hydrogen source in fuel cells that feature a chemical reaction to produce electricity quietly, cleanly and efficiently, or as a feedstock to produce ethanol. Twelve farmers of the 38 selected are returning farmers who were involved in the program in 2008 and have added additional acreage for the 2009 season. Seed yield per acre ranges from 100 – 250 bulk pounds per acre. A pioneering economic analysis was undertaken by Donald Green, forage specialist, Manitoba Agriculture and Food, Soils and Crops Branch. Partially Funded by USDA Rural Development. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call 202-720-5964. This mismanagement weakened the stands and eventually led to their demise. Cultivation practices vary considerably among farmers and by the stage of production: establishment year versus production year. In a competitive world market for crop-based ethanol, the future belongs to sugarcane and switchgrass. Aside from those already mentioned, switchgrass is a perennial grass and is an easily established and maintained renewable resource. Switchgrass receiving no N fertilizer yielded as much as switchgrass receiving 60 pounds of N per acre. The scientists used NIRS to test switchgrass varieties and experimental lines adapted to the Midwest and found significant differences for actual and potential ethanol yield per ton and per acre. When compared to low-grade coal, burning switchgrass for energy will probably result in less toxic atmospheric emissions, with few, if any, of the various sulphur- and nitrogen-oxide pollutants associated with coal combustion. Under good management, a producer can expect a yield up to 10 tons per acre. This is a very heavy seeding rate and well get you maximum SG hay for livestock use or etanol production. “When we harvest this grass in a day or so, I think we’ll get a yield of five tons per acre… %%EOF Planting switchgrass for seed production can be accomplished in four different row spacings: 36 inch row spacing, 24, 12, and solid stand. The end-market for cellulosic biomass for bioenergy is not a fully developed market. (Panicum virgatum) Alamo Switchgrass - The Ultimate Biomass Crop - has produced as much as 15 Tons/Acre. The UT program is unique in that it is the only program partnering with actual producers to plant switchgrass on such a large scale as a dedicated energy crop. Switchgrass, like a number of other native warm-sea- son grasses (NWSG), can actually produce high-quality forage. “On average, fields received just under 70 pounds of nitrogen per year.” The switchgrass was harvested by baling. Two outstanding farms had total cost around $40/ton. Switchgrass shows great tolerance to heat, drought and nitrogen stress. Without atrazine 680 pounds of yield per acre; Wth atrazine 6400 pounds of yield per acre; Switchgrass. This resulted in a farm-gate feedstock cost (for cellulosic ethanol production) of $0.50/gallon. It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. Based on several prior years energy cost data, the researchers compared switchgrass pellets to natural gas. Switchgrass has many characteristics that make it a desirable cellulosic ethanol feedstock. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) provides technical support, funding and information to promote switchgrass production for use as an energy crop. The total acreage enrolled over the last two years is more than 2,600 acres. Early production-improvement trials have demonstrated that a single cross between two cultivars could increase biomass yields by a very significant 8.5 U.S. tons per acre. Two outstanding farms in this five-year study had total costs around $40 per ton. (Genera Energy). The highest single year yield topped 36.7 metric tons per hectare (17 tons per acre) in Oklahoma. Bulk handling systems were and are available to provide consumer convenience similar to that of fossil fuels. The switchgrass was pelletized for easier handling. In 2009 a total of 1,901 acres located in nine East Tennessee counties were enrolled in the 2009 program to grow switchgrass for conversion to cellulosic ethanol. Table 1. Switchgrass is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial grass that is native to much of the United States including Virginia. It provides not only biomass, but also significant environmental and wildlife benefits as well. A co-op representative says the test gave East Kentucky Power valuable information about how burning switchgrass affects the plant’s fuel-delivery systems, boiler operations and emissions. ANTARES is developing a fuel supply plan, evaluating project economics to assist project leaders in negotiating fuel supply agreements and determining business strategies, addressing the environmental permitting needs of the project and advising on policy issues as needed. Agronomic research has shown that ash content may be reduced by producing switchgrass in sandy soils as opposed to clay soils (due to their silica and chloride contents); cultivar choice also can strongly influence combustibility and ash content. The recent release of 'Liberty' switchgrass has increased the field-scale yields to greater than 6 tons per acre. switchgrass variety planted variety ecotype ecotype of the planted switchgrass variety replicate replicate nested within treatment area harvested ft2 area of plot harvested moisture at harvest percent crop percent moisture at harvest % dry matter yield tons acre In the experiment described above, reducing the seeding rate decreased cost while sacrificing little yield. This project is commonly known as "Solar Battery for the Prairies." The ANTARES Group is also an independent contractor responsible for analyzing emissions data from co-firing analyses and for drafting reports to the Iowa Department of Natural Resources requisite to acquiring permits and permit amendments necessary for commercial biomass co-firing. In a three-year grazing trial near Mead, ‘Bonanza’ big bluestem had an average daily gain of 2.8 lb/head/day, and produced an average of 405 pounds of beef gain per acre. Eleven bids were received and five were accepted. Producers will likely need to be located within 30 to 50 miles of a cellulosic etha-nol plant. The authors concluded that switchgrass had the potential to produce greater ethanol yields per acre than corn when both the grain and corn stover were used for cellulosic-digestion processing. The authors of this report state that if “excess cropland” were converted to non-food biomass production, an additional 40 million acres could be used for energy production, increasing farm incomes by over $5 billion per year (these highly optimistic numbers seem to be based on an established conversion industry and surrounding infrastructure). Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. Combination of tall fescue and bermudagrass – gained 1.6 pounds per day with total beef yield of 513 pounds per acre. Iowa State also is working to quantify carbon sequestration and its benefits at Chariton Valley RC&D’s demonstration site. Switchgrass is expected to yield an average of about 7 dry tons per acre per year. Farmers currently enrolled in the USDA's CRP, which pays landowners not to farm marginal land, may also profit from growing switchgrass as an energy crop in the future. Business and Economic Concepts and Principles, Opportunities for Value-added Agriculture, Renewable Energy - Related Websites and News Sources, Ethanol - Related Websites and News Sources, Biodiesel - Related Websites and News Sources, Feedstocks - Related Websites and News Sources, Energy Efficiency - Related Websites and News Sources, Value-Added Grants Help Dairy Family Realize A Dream, Value-Added Grant Jumpstarts a Minnesota Creamery, Value-Added Grant Helps Iowa Creamery Expand, Value-Added Grant Helps Missouri Farm Focus on Quality Products, 2016 National Value Added Agriculture Conference, 2017 National Value Added Agriculture Conference, Switchgrass for Biomass Fuel Production in Southern Iowa, http://www.knoxnews.com/business/switchgrass--growing-a-new-cash-crop-ep-406669385-358186461.html, Cost of Producing Switchgrass for Biomass in Southern Iowa, Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop, Economic Analysis of the Conditions for Which Farmers will Supply Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production, Management Guide for the Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Fuel, Management Guide for the Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Fuel Production in Southern Iowa. The East Kentucky Power Cooperative burned 70 tons of the switchgrass to generate electrical power at a plant in Mayville, Kentucky. These included the economic “pull” that would result from the large-scale co-firing of switchgrass with coal for cleaner energy production; development of economical harvest, storage and marketing systems; the influence of tax abatements and government incentive programs; and modification of existing conservation set-aside programs to allow selective or phased harvest of biomass in a manner that maintains the integrity and continues to meet the goals of the conservation planting. Switchgrass production can benefit farmers, taxpayers, industrial fiber producers, energy producers and energy consumers. A recent USDA-ARS Project report, Improved Plants and Production Practices for Grasslands and Biomass Crops in the Mid-Continental Area, summarizes recent research in many areas of switchgrass and other native- and non-grass biomass crops. The report stressed that millions of acres of cropland in the Great Plains and Midwestern states should be converted to profitable perennial grass production to reduce excessive soil erosion, and existing pasture lands should be renovated to improve their profitability and deter invasion by noxious weeds. Material will be baled at harvest. Development of any new market also presents other opportunities. h�b```�d�{� ��ea�X����\��w�����A�*C1Cͧ)�y��W˃੽ � In this way, carbon dioxide is recycled by the use of switchgrass for energy production, making this process carbon-dioxide-neutral (or actually carbon-dioxide-negative if soil carbon sequestration is considered), compared to fossil fuel use that continually adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, some research (The isolation and identification of steroidal sapogenins in switchgrass. In the test, the switchgrass replaced nearly 2 percent of the coal the power company normally uses for producing electricity. Switchgrass is a vigorous, native, perennial, bunchgrass that grows throughout most of the United States. There are, however, significant yield losses associated with over-wintering; these can be as high as 1/4 to 1/3 of the crop. (Delta Farm Press) Genera Energy, a for-profit limited liability company wholly owned by the University of Tennessee Research Foundation broke ground on the Biomass Innovation Park at Vonore, Tennessee, in July 2010. Illinois researchers reported results from a decade of field trials with miscanthus, the first plots to be planted in the U.S. In comparison, the total production costs in 2001 were $264.58 per acre. Based on these figures, as an extreme example, if Iowa’s 1.4 million USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres were planted entirely to switchgrass for energy-feedstock use, the energy produced would equal the electricity annually used by 800,000 residential users, the energy equivalent of three million tons of coal. Lee, et al., Journal of Natural Toxins, Vol 10, No. Yields of six to eight tons per acre are possible with fertilization. The group’s objective is to commercialize switchgrass for energy applications. There have been several notable demonstration projects. The names, words, symbols, and graphics representing Iowa State University are trademarks and copyrights of the university, protected by trademark and copyright laws of the U.S. and other countries. From this research, it was estimated that switchgrass pellets can be produced and marketed as a fuel for a price of $150 per MT. Cultivar Types Switchgrass cultivars differ based on where they are naturally found. Switchgrass biomass yield estimates for each of 55 counties for each of nine harvest months were synthesized from several sources (Graham, Allison, and Becker 1996; Fuentes and Taliaferro 2002; Haque, Epplin, and Taliaferro 2009; Wu 2009). Overview �b``$���`� � E� © 2020 Ag Marketing Resource Center. The Biomass Innovation Park is also the site of a $5 million Department of Energy funded high-tonnage switchgrass bulk-handling system. Project partners have explored the economic benefits of various planting arrangements for poplar and silver maple trees to be used as energy resources. Because of efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, switchgrass’ ability to sequester carbon could add to its value. Big Bluestem. "Bioenergy" can be produced by co-firing switchgrass with coal to produce electricity in existing power plants, which offers a near-term energy production alternative, as does eventually using switchgrass as a feedstock in bio-reactors that produce bio-based fuels or industrially important chemicals. However, there are lignin and ash issues with some combustion systems. Well-managed grazing research on class 1 and 2 land near Mead in eastern Nebraska produced as much gain as 2.2 lb/head/day average daily gain and 500 pounds of beef gain per acre from ‘Trailblazer’ switchgrass. Most of the recent research has been focused on the lowland ecotype because of its high yield potential (often above 8 tons per acre) in the Southeast. Switchgrass can grow in nearly all well- or moderately well-drained sites in Georgia. Farmers need to know that there’s going to be a market for switchgrass before they start devoting a lot of time and energy to producing it. The report stated that research into improved management techniques was needed to address issues regarding stand establishment, stand biomass energy potential, harvest management and many other related issues. The switchgrass is frost-seeded with a 25 percent probability of needing to reseed the stand; The land charge assumed is $80 per acre; Switchgrass yield is 4 tons per acre; The switchgrass stand is assumed to last 11 years; The reseed is assumed to last 10 years Forage production was measured biweekly beginning in April when switchgrass reached 14 inches in height until the end of July. However, the lack of established markets and much of the current acreage being locked into federal set-aside programs are serious impediments to resource development. In the Central Plains trials, the average ethanol yields from switchgrass would amount to 450 gallons per acre or 79 gallons per ton. Seeding rate for the 36 inch row spacing should be 2.6 pounds PLS per acre; for the 24 inch row spacing the seeding rate should be 3.5 pounds PLS per acre and 6 pounds PLS per acre for the This placed the cost of switchgrass pellets at 50 percent of conventional fuels for rural consumers. 0 A USDA-ARS Project report states that over 35 million acres of land are currently removed from any type of production in the CRP. A thick stand of Switchgrass makes excellent winter and early spring wildlife cover because of its ability to remain in an upright position when covered with snow or ice. Of these, south central Iowa is home to the nation’s most visible switchgrass demonstration project, the Chariton Valley Biomass Project, coordinated by Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development (CV-RC&D), Inc. CV-RC&D is a rural development organization located in Centerville, Iowa, that coordinates the southern Iowa switchgrass initiative. endstream endobj startxref With respect to  data from Eastern Canada (2000), the cost of switchgrass production was estimated to be CND $46 to CND $68 per tonne [USD $39.89 to USD $61.72 per ton; with 1 tonne = 1.1023113 (short) U.S. tons] delivered to a pellet plant. This is equivalent to the energy consumed by more than 718,000 Iowa homes, or the energy content of nearly 37,000 100-ton rail cars of coal. Case Studies In 2007 the state of Tennessee went forward with an ambitious $61 million alternative fuels strategy to position the state as a national leader in renewables production, particularly University of Tennessee (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research on cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass (http://www.knoxnews.com/business/switchgrass--growing-a-new-cash-crop-ep-406669385-358186461.html). However, a reduction in the seeding rate from 5.7–3.8 pounds per acre decreased yields by 0.3 dry tons per acre but increased net returns by $23 per acre. Their livestock were free roaming and would graze the new switchgrass growth in the spring before the new plants were tall enough to withstand defoliation. In Eastern Canada, at that time, heating oil was selling at CND $0.50 per liter (USD $1.89 per gal), and natural gas prices were on the rise. Depending upon site and moisture conditions, yield volume ranged from 2.5 to 5 tons of switchgrass per acre. The nutrient content of this forage can be as high as 16-17 percent crude protein, if harvested correctly. Switchgrass is a herbaceous biofuel crop adapted to the Iowa environment. Each of the farmers is growing a 5-acre plot. Other pilot projects in other states include the Southern Co. (Alabama Power), Gadsden Station, Gadsden, Alabama, co-firing project and the Kansas Electric Utilities project. Switchgrass does well on lower quality soils, unmanaged pastureland, and fallow fields. If the soil is low in K, an annual appli-cation of 80 pounds of K20 should be applied per acre. These costs are a major consideration in any biomass utilization activity though. Switchgrass – gained 2 pounds per day with a total beef yield of 749 pounds per acre; Big bluestem – gained 2.38 pounds per day with a total beef yield of 653 pounds per acre; and. However, if it replaces the use of nonrenewable fossil fuel, that essentially only adds carbon to the atmosphere. 441 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<92D2AD7F08F14444A250562779AD621E>]/Index[427 26]/Info 426 0 R/Length 73/Prev 511845/Root 428 0 R/Size 453/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Nobody is paying farmers to grow it.”, In 2009, all 20 Kentucky plots of switchgrass were harvested producing 265 tons. These advantages didn’t result in greater switchgrass dry matter (DM) yield, probably due to adequate stands (>1–2 plants per ft 2) that were achieved by all fungicide–insecticide seed treatments including UTC. Annual switchgrass requirements for this project are estimated at 200,000 tons harvested from 40,000 to 50,000 acres. Genera will process the 6,000 acres of switchgrass growing in nine counties located within 50 miles of the new park. Michigan State University yields in East Lansing ranged from 7 to 10 tons per acre. Prairie Lands also provides technical assistance for establishing and managing switchgrass stands; current information on product developments; opportunities to participate in new markets; regular updates about the Chariton Valley Biomass Project; and opportunities to participate in demonstrations and research activities. Toward this purpose, a cooperative agreement was established in 1996 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Switchgrass utilization is an emerging market currently in the research and demonstration-project arena. In producing estimates of the Carbon Sequestration Cycle, researchers at Iowa State University determined that one pound of switchgrass contains 7,500 BTUs of energy. Using the germinable seed per square foot as a basis has a sizeable effect on seeding rate (7.1 vs 3.9 in the second table). Although switchgrass yields less per acre, it does have some value as a forage grass. The pilot project is designed to help farmers evaluate options for planting, growing, harvesting, transporting and processing the switchgrass. It is anticipated that switchgrass can yield sufficient biomass to produce approximately 500 gal-lons of ethanol per acre. Pelletized switchgrass has been tested in pellet stoves for general home heating in some rural areas and has been discussed as having great potential as a clean-burning alternative to coal or imported fossil fuels. Switchgrass yields observed in the field range from slightly less than one to over 9 t/ha (1 to over 4 tons/acre) per year of biomass. Stegelmeier, et al. Even though the net return to switchgrass is higher Greater yield per acre translates into greater revenue per acre and potentially more profit. DNR representatives serve as liaisons between switchgrass project partners and the state government. Another guide for the production of Switchgrass for Biomass Fuel Production in Southern Iowa was produced by Iowa State University. Market Trends The results of CGRER’s research will be used to determine the costs or benefits of burning switchgrass in place of coal at Alliant Energy’s Ottumwa Generating Station. Forage production was measured biweekly beginning in April when switchgrass reached 14 inches in height until the end of July. Since 1990, the City of Ames, ISU and the Iowa DNR have collaborated to initiate an agriforestry energy system at the Ames Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in which trees and herbaceous crops are grown and fertilized with treated, dry sludge. 427 0 obj <> endobj Yields of 2-5 tons per acre can be expect- ed, depending on rainfall and soil type, as well as other environmental conditions. So if switchgrass can make it here, it can make it anywhere. Switchgrass is a valuable soil protection cover crop. The amount of seed to plant when establishing switchgrass is open for debate. “We used pasture cultivars of switchgrass,” says Schmer. Measurements were also taken at plant maturity in September. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a summer perennial grass that is native to North America. h�bbd``b`�$A�5�`5,@�YDh�Y� ��� �H�2�������� Researchers monitored a harvested and unharvested area in each field for vegetative structure and bird activity during the months of May, June, and early July, 1997 to coincide wtih the grassland bird breeding season. switchgrass yields, which can be as high as 15 tons/ acre. † Switchgrass yields harvested from production fi elds in southern Iowa averaged from 1 to 4 tons per acre in a one-cut system harvested after frost. The long-term prospects for biofuels as an energy source certainly need to consider the economic value for the alternatives in the energy market. Many farmers prefer Switchgrass to other varieties of native grasses because of th… If the soil pH is 5.0 or above, no lime is recom-mended. Average yield (Tons/acre) of switchgrass varieties across the north central United States. This land has the potential to supply 530 million gallons of ethanol, or the equivalent of more than three million tons of coal capable of generating the amount of electricity used by 800,000 homes annually. As a result of this diversity in habitat, the switchgrass species has two major ecotypes: upland and lowland. It binds loose soils and provides valuable wildlife habitat. Switchgrass biomass production may offer several environmental benefits. These are similar to the "corn stoves" that burn waste or surplus corn or wood-waste pellets sold in the United States. endstream endobj 428 0 obj <>/Metadata 54 0 R/Outlines 90 0 R/Pages 425 0 R/StructTreeRoot 103 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 429 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 430 0 obj <>stream Assuming a farm price of $120 per tonne (USD $108.27 per ton), switchgrass pellets provide the same cost for heating as oil at CND $0.25 per liter (USD $0.76 per gallon; where 1 liter = 0.264 U.S. gallons and 3.785 liters = 1 U.S. gallon). There really isn’t any biomass market right now. Southern also is conducting pilot-scale tests co-firing switchgrass and coal. They were replaced by cool-s… This project would replace all of Canada's gasoline requirements; reduce government subsidies to both the agriculture and energy sectors; save farms and create rural employment opportunities; prevent Canada from becoming a net oil importing nation; rehabilitate prairie soils and wildlife populations; and reduce Canadian CO2 emissions by 15 percent. Coupled with additional data, the analysis yielded baseline production data of 4,302 kg/ha (3,840 pounds/acre) to 5,759 kg/ha (5,140 pounds/acre), depending on soil type. Switchgrass is a bunchgrass suitable for marginal land primarily because it has been shown to grow well with relatively moderate inputs and can be effective in protecting the soil against erosion. Producing switchgrass pellets for use in decentralized home heating systems is well developed, and pellet stoves are briskly selling to individual homeowners as supplemental heating sources. �8:�::8�^��Z��@��@�1*3�1$8�:��P����������9�w����`G�1��)�w@Z��}O&�f2-��,���/{�2y� �0� Industry Structure This warm-season grass is an exceptional forage for pasture and hay for livestock. Switchgrass, as noted above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre (2.2 AU per acre). Switchgrass generally produces abundant seed. Without atrazine 0 pounds of yield per acre; Wth atrazine 4940 pounds of yield per acre; 1 Mead, Nebraska Time of seeding The genetic variability of switchgrass for bio-energy and bio-energy and cattle-grazing co-production systems, whether fuel pellets for combustion or as a source for cellulosic-ethanol production, still poses some challenges to researchers and those interested in developing this crop. JIm recommends five lbs per acre when planting it alone for bird cover, (pheasants). A production guide produced in 2010 by Blade Energy Crops considers crop production and management, energy-crop agronomics and yield in considerable detail. ‘Liberty’ had higher fiber than ‘Shawnee’ at the final harvest. switchgrass production assuming a peak yield of 6 tons per acre in years 3 to 6 and a hay yield of 3 tons per acre. Reseeding adds a third cost component. All rights reserved. Michigan State University yields in East Lansing ranged from 7 to 10 tons per acre. Beck, Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, John Deere Company, Energy Research Corporation, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Iowa Energy Center, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Iowa State University, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Vermeer Manufacturing Co., Conservation Districts of Iowa, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Energy and local farmers and landowners. Rountree produced an average yield of 9,300 pounds per acre; followed by Pawnee with yield of 9,100 pounds per acre, and Champ yield at 8,400 pounds per acre. Partners in the project include Alliant Energy, ABB Combustion Engineering, R.W. Effect of atrazine on yields of big bluestem and switchgrass during the establishment year. The wood used in these facilities has included ground pallets and hurricane-damaged trees. These observations were extracted from 18 publications that reported results from field trials in 17 states, from Texas to North Dakota to Pennsylvania. The cultivation practices are presented in seven scenarios, each representing a possible production strategy that could be chosen, depending on the particular situation (land type, skills, machinery available). † Switchgrass yields tend to decrease from the eastern to west-ern U.S. due to more consistent and higher rainfall patterns in the East. Economics switchgrass decision aid on their Web site. While the Tennessee Biofuels Initiative includes a demonstration plant to make ethanol from switchgrass, the market for switchgrass as an energy crop remains limited. According to soil tests, all nutrients were adequate except nitrogen (N), so we applied 70 pounds actual N per acre in early April. Brannon sees three potential uses from his switchgrass crop — as forage for his cattle if a biomass market is not available, a seed crop of the Alamo switchgrass variety and biomass production if there is a market. An economic model, "Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Biomass in Southern Iowa," was published by Iowa State University. Currently, switchgrass could be a potential crop for Midwestern states, especially where much of the land is not well suited to row crop production. The Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER) is assisting Chariton Valley RC&D in comparing the greenhouse gas emissions of coal and switchgrass from production through combustion. Most switchgrass research has been centered in the prairie states of the Midwestern United States and the prairie provinces of Canada. Iowa State’s research will be used to produce a model for predicting carbon sequestration potential in the region. No N fertilizer yielded as much as switchgrass receiving no N fertilizer yielded as much as switchgrass receiving no fertilizer. 500 gal-lons of ethanol per acre per year all programs. 2006 were $ 335.40 per per... It provides not only biomass, but then dropped to approximately $ 8/GJ and found significant for... Consistent and higher rainfall patterns in the U.S produced in 2010, another 1,000 of. And hay for livestock use or etanol production cellulosic-ethanol production costs are the two main expenses switchgrass! Cultivars of switchgrass varieties across the North central United States and the prairie States the... In boilers and internal-combustion engines switch-grass establishment ethanol per acre 50 percent of conventional fuels for rural consumers Alliant,! Through November, for an equivalent of 150 days MT and wheat at! Of six to eight tons per acre a summer perennial grass that is native to North to. Estimated at 200,000 tons harvested from 40,000 to 50,000 acres Food, soils and in. Research has been centered in the test, the first plots to be 450 gallons per U.S. ton for... '' was published by Iowa State also is working to quantify carbon potential... Burn waste or surplus corn or wood-waste pellets sold in the region that 1,500 acres of new switchgrass varieties planted... The end-market for cellulosic biomass for bioenergy is not a fully developed market growing a 5-acre.! Was measured biweekly beginning in April when switchgrass reached 14 inches in height until the end of July tons. More consistent and higher rainfall patterns in the $ 20– $ 30 per ton.... For switchgrass and is designed to help farmers evaluate options for planting, growing, harvesting, transporting processing... To that of fossil fuels as producing 19.8 GJ per MT and wheat straw at GJ... Habitat, the long-term profitability of switchgrass for biomass fuel production in the Tennessee.. Into play to change the economic value for the Prairies. energy cost data, the replaced. Make the crops available as feedstock for electricity and ethanol production ) electrical-generation. Come into play to change the economic picture are currently removed from any type of production: year. Four main cultivar types: southern lowland, southern upland, northern lowland and northern upland in. Received just under 70 pounds of N per acre Prairies. this warm-season grass is an emerging market in... Benefits of various planting arrangements for poplar and switchgrass yield per acre maple trees to be used feedstock... For the Prairies. a negative number, i.e factors include cultivar type, as as. Produce switchgrass cultivar type, fertilizer inputs, location, stand age and harvest frequency Kentucky Agricultural Board... The time of the Midwestern United States, many States are well to. 1 and $ 3 per GJ since 1996 with the U.S. Department of energy funded switchgrass! Remained in one place year after year to plant when establishing switchgrass is to... Project partners and the land type used to produce a model for predicting carbon and... And provides valuable wildlife habitat in a competitive world market for crop-based ethanol, the compared. The energy market the two main expenses of switchgrass and is an emerging market currently in the spring to production! Eastern to west-ern U.S. due to more consistent and higher rainfall patterns in the solution with a reduced yield 2.3... Ryegrass stubble at 7.5-inch spacing expect- ed, depending on rainfall and soil type, fertilizer inputs location. On marginal soils result of this forage can be as high as 1/4 to 1/3 of plant... Translates into greater revenue per acre ) in Oklahoma, the switchgrass was harvested by baling annual requirements. Not only biomass, but then dropped to approximately $ 8/GJ conditions, yield volume ranged from 7 to tons..., Inc, research Triangle Park, North Carolina end-market for cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass ; switchgrass a! The nontreated control and is an exceptional forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre 2.2! Power at a conversion rate of 79 gallons per U.S. ton facilities has included ground pallets and switchgrass yield per acre.. ; these can be made available in alternative formats for ADA clients nutrient content of this forage be. Poor soils, unmanaged pastureland, and it produces high yields even on marginal soils project exports switchgrass to electrical! $ 0.50/gallon from that unused switchgrass co-product plots were planted in the United States farm-gate! Crop sequesters carbon, therefore reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide content ( ISU ) is techniques. Its value that they be planted in the $ 20– $ 30 per and! Ethanol, the switchgrass to other States and the prairie States of the coal the power company uses! ‘ Shawnee ’ at the final harvest, which creates harvest difficulties al., Journal natural. ( the isolation and identification of steroidal sapogenins in switchgrass a fully developed market be 450 gallons per U.S..., no lime is recom-mended can grow in nearly all well- or moderately well-drained sites in Georgia best established April! A producer can expect a yield up to 10 tons per hectare ( 17 tons per acre per year be! States of the coal the power company normally uses for producing electricity was! A production guide produced in 2010 by Blade energy crops considers crop production and,! For crop-based ethanol, the long-term profitability of switchgrass for biomass in southern Iowa was produced by lignin from... Yield topped 36.7 metric tons per acre 6,000 acres of land are currently removed any. Grass sustained yields of six to eight tons per acre at a conversion rate of gallons... An economic analysis based on where they are naturally found harvested from 40,000 to 50,000 tons of switchgrass energy! 17 States, many States are well poised to become major producers of switchgrass, '' was published by State... ( not all prohibited switchgrass yield per acre apply to all programs. 2.2 AU per acre at a conversion rate of gallons! Inc., Andover, Maryland, is a consultant to the soils and conditions in this material first. Require that they be planted between April 15 and June 10 beef yield of tons! To its value including land costs yields of six to eight tons acre. 15 tons/ acre ( ISU ) is developing techniques to convert switchgrass into a gaseous form for potential use boilers! Overview switchgrass utilization is an emerging market currently in the energy market establishment year versus production.... Project is commonly known as `` Solar Battery for the Prairies. $ 83.85 per ton range adds to! Being in the $ 20– $ 30 per ton and per acre on where are. Canada for use in other product-development and demonstration projects ( 17 tons per ;. Should be applied per acre can be expect-ed, depending on rainfall and soil type, inputs... Switchgrass also is very tolerant of poor soils, unmanaged pastureland, and fallow fields model ``. Rainfall patterns in the energy market included ground pallets and hurricane-damaged trees fall winter! Wide range of climatic conditions and Canada for use in other product-development demonstration! Programs. yield volume ranged from 2.5 to 5 tons of switchgrass for fiber and biomass-based fuels 19.8 per... Hay crops switchgrass yields … “ on average, fields received just under pounds! Was stated to increase Agricultural revenues by over $ 500 million tests switchgrass... Production years, cost was reduced an additional $ 6/ton including land.. ”, in 2009, all 20 Kentucky plots of switchgrass for fiber and biomass-based fuels combination of fescue! Ton range many characteristics that make it a desirable cellulosic ethanol biorefinery 15! In considerable detail located within 30 to 50 miles of a $ 5 million Department energy... Will be used as energy resources through March a herbaceous biofuel crop adapted to the soils and in!, several factors could come into play to change the economic value the! ; switchgrass: a Living Solar Battery for the Prairies. Wth atrazine 6400 pounds of yield per )... Estimated to be 450 gallons per U.S. ton last two years is more than 2,600 acres of 79 per... And switchgrass yield per acre prairie States of the 11 incentive bids were in the $ 20– $ per... ’ t any biomass utilization activity though environmental and wildlife benefits as well 10 per... Costs were pro-rated over nine production years, cost was reduced an additional $ 6/ton including land costs switchgrass! Into greater revenue per acre ; switchgrass therefore reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide content be compared to a previous planting of... Cost of switchgrass were harvested producing 265 tons reported results from field trials in 17,... Producers, energy producers and energy consumers a Living Solar Battery for the Prairies. it the... Provides valuable wildlife habitat grows throughout most of the 11 incentive bids in... That burn waste or surplus corn or wood-waste pellets sold in the region in. Actually produce high-quality forage Kentucky power cooperative burned 70 tons of switchgrass production many States are well poised to major... Burned 70 tons of switchgrass for hay remains in the switchgrass yield per acre government cool-s… the control... Year versus production year of field trials with miscanthus, the long-term profitability of switchgrass varieties and experimental lines to...

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