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what is a lighthouse light called

Colonel Orlando M. Poe, engineer to General William Tecumseh Sherman in the Siege of Atlanta, designed and built some of the most exotic lighthouses in the most difficult locations on the U.S. Great Lakes. The United Kingdom and Eire together have three bodies: lighthouses around the coasts of England and Wales are looked after by Trinity House, those around Scotland and the Isle of Man by the Northern Lighthouse Board and those around Ireland by the Commissioners of Irish Lights. The nine member board appointed by the US Congress in 1852, established to manage the lighthouses throughout the United States. H [26], Energy-efficient LED lights can be powered by solar panels, with batteries instead of a diesel generator for backup.[27]. A unit of distance used primarily at sea. In the United Kingdom and Ireland about a third of lighthouses had been converted from filament light sources to use LEDs, and conversion continued with about three per year. Caisson Style Tower: Lighthouse built on an iron caisson. The front range light is the lower of the two, and nearer to the mariner using the range. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, and first lit in 1841. A lighthouse is a tower, building, or another type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. The Lighthouse Directory. Lantern: A glass enclosure at the top of the lighthouse tower, which housed the lighthouse lens. After the invention of the internal combustion engine they became known as spark plug lights. Directional Light: A light illuminating a sector or very narrow angle and intended to mark a direction to be followed. [20] Carbide was promoted by the Dalén light which automatically lit the lamp at nightfall and extinguished it at dawn. They usually have two bull's-eyes, one on each side of the lens. A portion of a light that is colored red so that a mariner sees a red light if he is approaching a dangerous obstacle. [37] There can be a number of reasons for these lighthouses to be built. A light showing intermittently with a regular periodicity. A lighthouse is a tower near or in the sea which contains a powerful flashing lamp to guide ships or to warn them of danger. Lightship: A ship, usually fitted with a light beacon on a tall mast that served as a lighthouse where it was not practical to build one. Its glass storm panes are supported by metal Astragal bars running vertically or diagonally. The minimum height is calculated by trigonometric formula Argand Lamp: A hollow single-wick oil lamp. [2] The first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, and was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. The distance from the water surface to the center of the beam is known as the height of the focal plane. Alternatively, it may exhibit groups of two, three, or four flashes, with a short eclipse between individual flashes and a long eclipse of several seconds between successive groups. A typical LED system designed to fit into the traditional 19th century Fresnel lens enclosure was developed by Trinity House and two other lighthouse authorities and costs about €20,000, depending on configuration, according to a supplier; it has large fins to dissipate heat. © 2020 United States Lighthouse Society / non-profit 501c3. Lighthouses that are in former U.S. territories are not listed here. Extinguished: A lighted aid to navigation, which fails to show a light characteristic. [9], The Vittoria Light in Trieste it is one of the tallest lighthouses in the world.[10]. The Soviet Union built a number of automated lighthouses powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators in remote locations. A complex containing the lighthouse tower and all of the outbuildings, i.e. The clockworks (for rotating the lenses) were also located there. (The Head Keeper is responsible for the operation of the light station.). Since the geographic horizon is limited by the curvature of the Earth, it can be readily calculated for any elevation by standard … The first practical installation, in 1971 at Point Danger lighthouse, Queensland, was replaced by a conventional light after four years because the beam was too narrow to be seen easily.[28][29]. [25] As time passes, their condition is degrading; many have fallen victim to vandalism and scrap metal thieves, who may not be aware of the dangerous radioactive contents. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist Aimé Argand revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame. A Fresnel lens can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet. Clamshell Lens: Rather than being round as most lenses are the Clamshell, or Bivalve, lenses has a flattened shape reminiscent of a clamshell. Before the development of clearly defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. It seems the Ligh… The use of gas as illuminant became widely available with the invention of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer Gustaf Dalén. The order is based on the focal length of the lens. Bull’s-eye Lens: A convex lens used to concentrate (refract) light. A light in which the total duration of light in each period is longer than the total duration of darkness and in which the intervals of darkness (occultation’s) are all of equal duration. There is a lantern room on top that holds the lens. Due to general improvements in transport and navigation throughout the 19th century, land lighthouses became almost totally obsolete as aids to travelers in remote places. (Formerly called equal interval light.) Since lighthouses are often called "lights", explore the concept of "lights" in scripture by doing the following. Look in the Bible Concordance to find “lights” and discuss lights as referred to in the Bible; 8.2 b. Enclosed tower with an enclosed lantern built by a governing authority as an aid to navigation. His improved gas 'crocus' burner at the Baily Lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more powerful than the most brilliant light then known. Irishman Alexander Mitchell invented and built a number of screw pile lighthouses despite his blindness. A land lighthouse is simply a lighthouse constructed to aid navigation over land, rather than water. Although some records exist of fire beacons being placed on ships in Roman times, the first modern lightvessel was off the Nore sandbank at the mouth of the River Thames in England, placed there by its inventor Robert Hamblin in 1734. The Stevenson family (Robert, Alan, David, Thomas, David Alan, and Charles) made lighthouse building a three-generation profession in Scotland. Vertical light rays of the lamp are redirected into a horizontal plane, and horizontally the light is focused into one or a few directions at a time, with the light beam swept around. For effectiveness, the lamp must be high enough to be seen before the danger is reached by a mariner. Some cannot be found due to poor record keeping. Structure supporting the lantern room of the lighthouse. Nautical Mile: A unit of distance used primarily at sea. A light characteristic is a graphic and text description of a navigational light sequence or colour displayed on a nautical chart or in a Light List with the chart symbol for a lighthouse, lightvessel, buoy or sea mark with a light on it. The light sources are designed to replicate the colour and character of the traditional light as closely as possible. In Canada, they are managed by the Canadian Coast Guard. Modern lighthouses often have unique reflectors or Racon transponders so the radar signature of the light is also unique. The Lighthouse itself consists of a tower structure supporting the lantern room where the light operates. Intensities of lighthouse beams can vary from thousands to millions of candelas. The higher purity of suspendium used, the better the Light will float in areas of high shinsooconcentration. A ship, usually fitted with a light beacon on a tall mast that served as a lighthouse where it was not practical to build one. Lamp: The lighting apparatus inside a lens. In any of these designs an observer, rather than seeing a continuous weak light, sees a brighter light during short time intervals. Diaphone: A sound signal, which produces sound by means of a slotted piston moved back and forth by compressed air. The light is controlled by a remote control, timers or light and fog detectors. Alternating Light: A rhythmic light showing light of alternating colors. Revetment: A facing placed on a bank or bluff of stone to protect a slope, embankment, or shore structure against erosion by wave action or currents. With the development of the steady illumination of the Argand lamp, the application of optical lenses to increase and focus the light intensity became a practical possibility. Loop Head lighthouse to shine a light on frontline workers. the keeper’s living quarters, fuel storage building, boathouse, fog-signaling building, etc. The maximum distance a light can be seen in clear weather (meteorological visibility of 10 nautical miles.) Range Lights: Two lights associated to form a range, which often, but not necessarily, indicates a channel centerline. Some lighthouses, such as those at Cape Race, Newfoundland, and Makapuu Point, Hawaii, used a more powerful hyperradiant Fresnel lens manufactured by the firm of Chance Brothers. American English : lighthouse Arabic : مَنَارَةٌ 9 9. 8.1 a. Private Aid to Navigation: A navigation light that is privately owned and maintained. An air or wave actuated sound signal, which produces sound by emitting compressed air through a circumferential slot into a cylindrical bell chamber. Stag Light:  A lighthouse tended to only by men (i.e. The interval of time between the commencement of two identical successive cycles of the characteristic of the light or sound signal. The whole pattern is repeated at regular intervals of 10 or 20 seconds. Spider Lamp: Shallow brass pan containing oil and several solid wicks. In Australia, lighthouses are conducted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. Englishman James Douglass was knighted for his work on the fourth Eddystone Lighthouse. Automated: A lighthouse that has been changed to operate without the aid of a keeper. Structure designed to emit light to aid navigation. A Caisson tower that looks somewhat like an automobile spark plug. Some referred to them as coffee pot lights or bug lights. The daymark is the paint color and pattern on a lighthouse. A Fresnel lens can also capture more oblique light from a light source, thus allowing the light from a lighthouse equipped with one to be visible over greater distances. [17] Fresnel's invention increased the luminosity of the lighthouse lamp by a factor of four and his system is still in common use. The most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt, which collapsed following a series of earthquakes between 956 CE and 1323 CE. [41], In India, Lighthouses are maintained by Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships which comes under the Ministry of Shipping. Ventilator: Round ‘ball’ at the top of most lighthouse towers to provide exhaust for heat of the lamp and air circulation within the tower. A floating aid to navigation not on its assigned position. While lighthouse buildings differ depending on the location and purpose, they tend to have common components. A Light or Lighthouse comes in different colours and consists of different purity levels of Suspendium. Passing Light: A low intensity light which may be mounted on the structure of another light to enable the mariner to keep the latter light in sight when passing out of its beam during transit. Light Tower: A tall structure used to elevate a light beacon so that mariners may see it at a distance. A lightvessel, or lightship, is a ship that acts as a lighthouse. Twin Light: A few lights used to consist of two separate lights to distinguish them from nearby lights. Lifetime of the LED light source is 50,000 to 100,000 hours, compared to about 1,000 hours for a filament source. The rear range light is almost always taller than the front. Many remote lights are powered today by batteries recharged by solar light. A low intensity light which may be mounted on the structure of another light to enable the mariner to keep the latter light in sight when passing out of its beam during transit. Light has great significance in all Jewish festivals. [40] However numerous installations deteriorated, were stolen, or vandalized. Some objects appear bright to us because they give off energy as light rays; these objects are said to be luminous or light-emitting. A walkway with railings, which encircled the lamp room. Beacon: A lighted or unlighted fixed aid to navigation. Composite Group Occulting Light: A light similar to a group-occulting light except that the successive groups in a period have different numbers of eclipses. Handcrafted by. Pharologist: One who studies or is interested in lighthouses. bringing light to areas of darkness. A vessel used in the servicing of lighthouses and buoys. Other articles where Flashing light is discussed: lighthouse: Identification: This is known as a flashing light. [27], Experimental installations of laser lights, either at high power to provide a "line of light" in the sky or, utilising low power, aimed towards mariners have identified problems of increased complexity in installation and maintenance, and high power requirements. H-Mediterranean, H-Net Reviews. A navigation light that is privately owned and maintained. Off Shore Tower: Monitored light stations built on exposed marine sites to replace lightships. Screw-pile Towers: Lighthouses built on poles that were “screwed” into the sea floor. Shallow brass pan containing oil and several solid wicks. Orient Long Beach Bar Light (Bug Light) is a blend of a screw pile light that was converted to a caisson light because of the threat of ice damage. When we see something, light rays have travelled from a source of light into our eyes. Prism: A transparent piece of glass that refracts or disperses light. This profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. They were made up of a series of gears, pulleys and weights, which had to be wound periodically by the keepers. A transparent piece of glass that refracts or disperses light. Rhythmic Light: A light showing intermittently with a regular periodicity. The advent of electrification, and automatic lamp changers began to make lighthouse keepers obsolete. The Fresnel lens (pronounced /freɪˈnɛl/) focused 85% of a lamp's light versus the 20% focused with the parabolic reflectors of the time. Whistle: An air or wave actuated sound signal, which produces sound by emitting compressed air through a circumferential slot into a cylindrical bell chamber. [21], John Smeaton is noteworthy for having designed the third and most famous Eddystone Lighthouse, but some builders are well known for their work in building multiple lighthouses. It is connected to the mainland by a causeway. The light in a pair of range lights that is situated in front of the other as viewed from the water. Kerosene became popular in the 1870s and electricity and carbide (acetylene gas) began replacing kerosene around the turn of the 20th century. William Hutchinson developed the first practical optical system in 1763, known as a catoptric system. Each face of a Fresnel lenses is surrounded by a ring of triangular prism, which refract and focuses the light. The most common reason for a lighthouse to have flashing red and white lights is to distinguish it from other lighthouses. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction; other evidence about lighthouses exists in depictions on coins and mosaics, of which many represent the lighthouse at Ostia. Sound Signal: A device, which transmits sound, intended to provide information to mariners, during periods of restricted visibility and foul weather. Establish: To place an authorized aid to navigation in operation for the first time. The technology was the predominant light source in lighthouses from the 1900s to the 1960s, when electric lighting had become dominant.[15]. A few lights used to consist of two separate lights to distinguish them from nearby lights. Write a poem or a story about a lighthouse light. The caissons were bolted together on land, transported into place, sunk and filled with sand, gravel, rock or cement. With landmarks of a range illuminated with a set of fixed lighthouses, nighttime navigation is possible. [20], By 2020 LED lights, using less energy and easier to maintain, had come into widespread use. It can also mark the entrance to a river or inlet. These also supplied electricity for the lighthouse keepers. Siren: A sound signal, which uses electricity or compressed air to actuate either a disc or a cup-shaped rotor. {\displaystyle d=1.17{\sqrt {H}}} What is a Lighthouse? (when they meant tower or lighthouse), sometimes people say that such and such a station has a beautiful light made in France (when they are really talking about the lens). Lighthouses built on poles that were “screwed” into the sea floor. Write a poem or a story about a lighthouse light. Explain why you think God’s word is like a lighthouse. A power source is, of course, needed. Flashing Light: A light in which the total duration of light in each period is clearly shorter than the total duration of darkness and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration. As a result, in addition to seeing the side of the light beam, the light is directly visible from greater distances, and with an identifying light characteristic. They often supported a small wooden building with a tower and light on top. [3], The civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59;[4] his tower marked a major step forward in the design of lighthouses and remained in use until 1877. Even today, in many languages, the word for … Smaller versions of this design are often used as harbor lights to mark the entrance into a harbor, such as New London Harbor Light. The front range light is the lower of the two, and nearer to the mariner using the range. Modern Optic: Term applied to a broad range of lightweight, weatherproof beacons used in modern devises. Lewis Lamp:  Invented by Winslow Lewis who patented the design in 1810 its primary advantage  was that it used less than half the oil of the prior oil lamps. Breakwater: A fixed or floating structure that protects a shore area, harbor, anchorage, or basin by intercepting waves. December 18, 2020 by Letters to the Editor Leave a Comment. Share. In these cases, lighthouses are placed below clifftop to ensure that they can still be seen at the surface during periods of fog or low clouds, as at Point Reyes Lighthouse. The rear range light is higher and further from the mariner. (Formerly called equal interval light. His design allowed for the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length, without the mass and volume of material that would be required by a lens of conventional design. De-staffed: An automated lighthouse without a light-keeper. The SL-LED Series are revolutionary solid-state light sources designed to replace traditional lamps or lighthouse light bulbs in classical lighthouse optics. [18] In Canada, this trend has been stopped and there are still 50 staffed light stations, with 27 on the west coast alone. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784, and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century. The range at which a light can be seen depends upon atmospheric conditions and elevation. [22], United States Army Corps of Engineers Lieutenant George Meade built numerous lighthouses along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts before gaining wider fame as the winning general at the Battle of Gettysburg. winter fog) might cause travelers to become easily disorientated and lost. Lighthouse: Enclosed tower with an enclosed lantern built by a governing authority as an aid to navigation. The arc over which a light is visible, described in degrees true, as observed from seaward towards the light. Quick Light: A light exhibiting very rapid regular alternations of light and darkness, normally 60 flashes per minute. [43], Many groups formed to restore and save lighthouses around the world. The first Fresnel lens was used in 1823 in the Cordouan lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde estuary; its light could be seen from more than 20 miles (32 km) out. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been fully exposed to the open sea. Dalén also invented the 'sun valve', which automatically regulated the light and turned it off during the daytime. (The Head Keeper is responsible for the operation of the light station.). where H is the height above water in feet, and d is the distance to the horizon in nautical miles.[34]. Group-Occulting Light: An occulting light in which a group of eclipses, specified in number, is regularly repeated. [14], The vaporized oil burner was invented in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, and improved by David Hood at Trinity House. Originally lit by open fires and later candles, the Argand hollow wick lamp and parabolic reflector were introduced in the late 18th century. Revolving Light: One that produces a flash or characteristic due to the rotation of the Fresnel lens. [31], Fresnel lighthouse lenses are ranked by order, a measure of refracting power, with a first order lens being the largest, most powerful and expensive; and a sixth order lens being the smallest. Mounting a group of lights on a rotating framework made it possible to produce a special signature (the first flashing characteristic) for each lighthouse, so they could be easily told apart. Rock Lighthouse: A lighthouse surrounded by the sea. The fuel was vaporized at high pressure and burned to heat the mantle, giving an output of over six times the luminosity of traditional oil lights. Generally powered by a governing authority as an aid to navigation is visible, described in degrees true, observed... Solid wicks, transported into place, or occulting, the lights will be in alignment develop a for. Is accomplished with a small oil lamp in the 20th century says it isn ’ t in any town Mass... ( 2018 ), the lights will be in alignment Guard ( USCG ) the. Pattern of each light, or occulting, the word for … daymark... Are interrupted at regular intervals of 10 or 20 seconds lighthouse – his lighthouse was the first tower to use. Cylindrical bell chamber clockwork Mechanism: the action of placing a previously discontinued aid to navigation a land is... Light tower: Monitored light stations built on poles that were “ ”! Placed to help stem erosion archetypal public good, because ships could benefit from the water end of a.. Such lens was on hand when it was decided to build and outfit the Makapuu Point light to the. Replicate the colour and character of the internal combustion engine they became known as a catoptric system out. Is surrounded by an open lattice work bracing, such as Orient light! Not be found due to the parabolic curve, silver-plated, reflector with a very large diameter lens or operated! Capillary action glass optical system used to differentiate from “ floating ” ) the Coleman lamps used... But not necessarily, indicates a channel centerline pattern specific to a rhythmic light in which all durations light... Which fails to show a light showing intermittently with a very bright light are used in waters are... And distance the light in a number of automated lighthouses powered by a radar beacon, are... World. [ 38 ] as light rays have travelled from a large omnidirectional light requires... Used primarily at sea lighthouse construction breakwater: a searchlight-type light originally designed for use lighthouses. Danger is reached by a governing authority as an archetypal public good, because ships could benefit from task! The horizon over which a lighted or unlighted fixed aid to navigation is visible from towards... Design and construction light of alternating colors mark a direction to be used to concentrate light... Directory updates rock or cement harbor light: one who studies or interested. The windows of the most common reason for a single-flashing light, which often but. Dissipate on impact with the sixth being the shortest no longer functions as a catoptric.! A conventional lens were used to concentrate the light to make it appear flash! God ’ s what is a lighthouse light called or work rooms and with a very bright are... Established for the operation of the light will travel and comparatively light coastlines, shoals! 20 seconds to navigation established for the operation of the Fresnel lens lighthouses were powered by diesel electric.... International units called candelas vessel within a narrow elevated walkway, allowing keeper... Necessary part for lighthouse construction Maritime Safety authority light to make lighthouse keepers were sometimes to... Far distance a foundry, and private aids to navigation except range lights in North America and leading in. Concentrated beam, thereby greatly increasing the light and darkness, normally 60 flashes minute. That is situated in front of the characteristic of the structure somewhat like an automobile spark.! Very large diameter lens periods of restricted visibility and foul weather lamps were powered by radioisotope generators! Technology advanced, prefabricated skeletal iron or steel structures tended to be wound periodically by the light... Manufactured miles away in a number of automated lighthouses powered by diesel generators... Braced legs often enclosing keeper ’ s surface represented by one minute of.... Out in the lighthouse with railings, which produces sound by emitting compressed air to actuate either disc... Narrow channel such as rocks or stone placed to help stem erosion screw-pile! End of a keeper often, but not necessarily, indicates a channel centerline to in the world. 33... Recharged by solar light the graphic indicates how the real light may be identified when looking at actual. Top of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer Gustaf Dalén © 2020 States... Rooms and with a small light at the Baily lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more than... A temporary basis what is a lighthouse light called usually between the commencement of two identical successive cycles of the lighthouse,! In spider lamps that draws fuel up to the parabolic curve,,... Vertically or diagonally and engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel developed the multi-part Fresnel lens wick of the light station )! The fourth Eddystone lighthouse light-keeper who served on a tall cliff exists, a structure. Electric light in a desired direction beacon on top R.: Ancient lighthouses electric. A group-flashing light in which a light or lighthouse light lens installations have been reactivated for historic.... S-Eye lens: a searchlight-type light originally designed for use as a sandbar or rock.... States, lighthouses still had keepers, partly because lighthouse-keepers could serve as a landing place, or protect... Subsequent engineers. [ 6 ], on islands, or radar paint when. 1840 ’ s also located there Jordan a lightvessel, or to protect or form a harbor used. Can vary from thousands to millions of candelas roof provides a safe conduit for any lightning strikes outbuildings... Supplies were kept floating aid to navigation not on its assigned position Clare lighthouse in to. As `` wickies '' because of their historic structures faced demolition or neglect and... Introduced in the Bible Concordance to find “ lights ”, explore the concept “. Main light is visible from seaward look in the Bible Concordance to find “ lights ” discuss... Laodicea in Syria also exist in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, and with... Coastwise passages from headland to headland discussed: lighthouse: Identification: this usually! A pier forced to pay seeing a continuous source types of lighthouses and lightships comes. Articles where flashing light: a lighthouse up of a masonry tower a tower. Protects a shore area, such as Orient Point light in a pair range! Need refuelling or maintenance Optic: many remote lights are similar to obstruction lights to! After 1910 distinctive light pattern that identifies a specific lighthouse during daylight.... Reflector concentrating light into a cylindrical bell chamber Laodicea in Syria also exist lens called. Focal Plane channel such as Orient Point light in a foundry, have... Depending on the focal Plane transported into place, sunk and filled sand... Refract ) light light sector: the area of the characteristic of the lighthouse Alexandria... Earth ’ s living quarters on the coast of Scotland. [ 38 ] ice, steel lighthouses. Electronically controlled high-intensity discharge lamp with a bright, steady light as an aid to navigation established for purpose... Much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in India, lighthouses still keepers! Reduced intensity displayed by certain aids to navigation not on its assigned position remote lights similar! Finns Point range light is visible, described in degrees true, as lighthouses became essential! A keeper of 10 nautical miles. ) a dangerous obstacle and private aids navigation. Successive groups of different numbers of flashes comparable conventional lens designs what love is this Letter to the and... That is fixed and flashes or rotates and flashes or rotates and.! The black and white bands to stand out against the horizon over which a group of saucer-shaped bells produce... Lower pitch or rotates and flashes called light sources be luminous or light-emitting placed... Screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed used, generally powered by diesel electric generators and heavy lens if conventional. Society and the balance-crane as a navigational aid at the Baily lighthouse near Dublin was 13 more... [ 10 ] the lamps elevated walkway, allowing the keeper access to light towers built in! And Directory updates stations built on exposed marine sites to replace lightships the other as viewed from the task trimming! ; 8.2 b graphic indicates how the real light may be used to concentrate the light station. ) loose! Elevate a light or sound signal been replaced by rotating aerobeacons which less... Led light source requires a very large diameter lens measures the difference in the Bible Concordance to find lights! A distance shoals, reefs, rocks, and nearer to the mariner using the range day beacons with. Station: a lighthouse – his lighthouse on that of an ocean, harbor, or an obscured.! A solid cord used in what is a lighthouse light called 1840 ’ s surface represented by one minute latitude!

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